2、动词 + 副词：
give up放弃 carry out执行 look up查找 point out指出 bring up抚养
find out查明 hand in上交 make out认出 think over考虑 put on穿
wipe out消灭 pick up拣起 throw away抛弃 set up建立 take off脱掉
turn down拒绝 give away暴露 hand out分发 call off取消 turn off关掉
knock off停工 stand up起立 break down出毛病 look out小心 take off起飞
run out耗尽 catch up赶上 give in让步 grow up长大 hang around逗留
pass away去世 show off炫耀 drop out退出 get up起床 go on 继续
3、动词 + 副词 + 介词：
cut down on减少 get along with与…相处 run out of 用光 look up to尊敬 date back to追溯
get through with完成 keep up with 跟上 make up for 补偿 come down with患病 sit in on旁听
do away with 抛弃 look forward to 期望 put up with 忍受 stand up to反对 look down upon瞧不起
4、动词 + 名词 + 介词
catch sight of 看见 find fault with挑…毛病 keep an eye on照看 make fun of 取笑
make friends with与…交友 pay attention to注意 shake hands with与…握手 take advantage of 利用
take part in参加 get rid of摆脱 give rise to引起 lose sight of 看不见
make use of 利用 take care of照料 throw light on阐明 put a stop to结束
体态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行
时间 be +现在分词 have+过去分词 have been+
am + working
过去 worked was
were + working had worked had been working
shall +work will
shall +be working will
shall+have worked will
shall+have been working
should+be working would
should+have worked would
should +have been working
Everyone is in high spirits. Light travels more quickly than sound.
If it is fine tomorrow， we will go on a picnic. When you come next time， bring me some magazines.
The delegation arrives in Beijing this afternoon. There is a new film tonight.
The children went out just now. She died ten years ago. I lost my wallet at the theatre.
3.1 will/shall do： Next month， my sister will be nineteen. I shall/will return you the book tomorrow.
3.2 be going to do： The wall is going to be painted green. It is going to rain.
3.3 be to do表示按计划要发生的事： We are to meet at the school gate.
3.4 be about to do即将（正要）做某事： Autumn harvest is about to start.
He said that he would get married soon. I asked him when he would come here again.
5.1表示说话时，或现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的情况。 They are making an experiment now.
5.2 计划即将发生，如go， come， leave， arrive： He is coming here next week and is staying here until August.
We were talking about you a moment ago. I was playing the piano when she came in.
What will you be doing this time tomorrow？ I believe he'll be coming soon.
8.1过去发生但对现在有影响的动作，常跟时间状语already， yet， never， before， recently， just， ever， once连用。
I have been to Peking many times. They have already published the results of their experiments.
8.2从过去某时间开始一直延续到现在（可能还要继续下去）的动作，常跟时间状语since， for two years，
so far， in recent years等（使用延续性动词）
He has lived here since 1984. I have studied English for two years.
1）他参军已经有十年了。 ①He has been an armyman for ten years.
②It is （has been） ten years since he joined the army.
③He joined the army ten years ago.
2）It is （has been）…since： It is （has been） a long time since they last met each other.
3） This is the first（second） time that…： This is the second time that I have broken a cup this year.
John had learned some Chinese before he came to China. He found the book that he had lost.
By the end of last year， I had worked in this college for ten years.
***no sooner………than， hardly（scarcely）……when（before）
We had no sooner reached home than it began to rain. No sooner had we reached home than it began to rain.
He had hardly entered the office when （before） the phone rang.
10、现在完成进行时（常跟for hours， since this morning等表示一段时间的状语连用）
They have been watching TV for two hours. He has been working on this essay since this morning.
Kepler proved that the sun is the center of the solar system. 客观真理
I didn't go to the ball because I am not fond of dancing. 意义需要
一般时态 进行时态 完成时态
is being given
were written was
were being given had been written
will be written shall
will have been written
would be written should
would have been written
cost花费 fit适合 have有 hold容纳 lack缺乏
own占有 possess拥有 resemble像 suit适合 last持续
The boy resembles his father. We have friends all over the world.
①be taken in受骗，上当 ②be supposed to do something应该，被期望
③be intended for something（somebody） / to do something旨在，用于
The book is intended for beginners. We are supposed to meet at the gate at 7：00.
***转化为系动词的感官动词 + 表语
Good medicine tastes bitter. This material feels very soft.
***不及物动词和词组无被动语态： How long did the meeting last？
***in case， whether， where， as soon as遵照"主将从现"原则， 主句用将来时态，从句用现在时态
Whether I win or lose， I will have a good time. I will write to you as soon as I get here.
***表示心理活动和存在的动词一般不用进行时态： They love and respect each other.
1）作主语： To say something is one thing， to do it is another.说是一码事，干是另一码事。
***形式主语it It is not fair to blame them for the accident.
2）作表语： My suggestion is to carry out the plan immediately.
3）作宾语： He offered to go with us.他提出和我们一起去。
***形式宾语it We found it impossible to get everything ready in advance.
I consider it my duty to point out their shortcomings.
4）作宾语或主语的补足语： Mr. Smith wants his son to become a lawyer.
The suspected man was seen to enter the building.
此类动词还有如ask， advise， allow， compel， encourage， hear， intend， lead， inspire， order， persuade等。
***hope， demand， suggest不可接不定式作宾补，但可跟that引出的宾语从句。
He hoped that I would give him more help. The doctor suggests that my father （should） stop smoking.
***在see， hear， look at， listen to， feel， observe， watch， notice等感官动词， 以及let， make， have 等动词后面的不定式要省掉to .但注意在其被动语态中，作为主补的不定式要加上to.
We are made to write a composition every week by the teacher.
① "be said （reported， known…） + 不定式"可换成： it is said （reported， known…）that…
Shanxi Province is known to have rich coal reserves. = It is known that Shanxi ……
② seem （happen， appear， prove， tend） + 不定式
I happened to be out when she called. 碰巧出去了
③ be likely （certain， sure， willing， anxious， ready， bound， eager， reluctant） + 不定式
They are likely to succeed. She is always ready to help others.
He used to have a lot of meetings to attend. There is nothing to worry about.
①英语中有一些名词常跟不定式作定语：ability， agreement， ambition， attempt， claim， decision， hope， intention， failure， need， refusal， plan， promise， tendency， wish， willingness， threat， anxiety
His attempt to solve the problem failed again. Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us.
② the first， second， last， only （thing）， best （thing）等后面常跟不定式作定语。
He is always the first to come and the last to leave. What is the best thing to do？
They will go to the station to meet the guests. We are overjoyed to see you.
常跟不定式作原因状语的形容词有： happy， glad， relieved， astonished， amazed， overjoyed， surprised， sad
不定式也可作结果状语，仅限于learn得知， find发现， see看见， hear听见，to be told被告知， make使得等具有界限含义的动词， only to常表示令人不快的结果。
He returned home to learn his daughter had just been engaged.
I hurried to Professor Wang's house only to find he was out.
①不定式与in order to， so as to连用，作目的状语；与so（such）… as to连用，作目的状语和结果状语。
In order to catch the train， he hurried through his work. He was so angry as to be unable to speak.
③all too， only too…加不定式不表示否定的意思： I'm only too pleased to help you.我非常愿意帮助你。
8）插入语： To be fair， he has worked hard these days. We don't like your idea， to tell you the truth.
（1） for + 名词或代词宾语 + 不定式：I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.
（2） 不定式独立结构：He proposed a picnic， he himself to pay the railway tickets， and John to provide the food.
It was wise of him to do that. I think it wrong of him not to accept our invitation.
absurd荒唐的 bold大胆的 brave勇敢的 clever聪明的 courageous有勇气的 rude无礼的
considerate考虑周到的 foolish愚蠢的 honest诚实的 polite有礼貌的 silly傻的
grateful感激的 wicked邪恶的 thoughtful体贴的 careless粗心的 right正确的
2）不定式的否定式： not + to do They decided not to give up trying.
3）连接词 + 不定式： He will tell us how to use the library.
4）省 to 的不定式
①口语以 why 开头的简单句： Why not go out for a walk？ Why do it that way？
②had better， would rather…（than）， would…rather than， would sooner…（than）， can not but…， can't help but…， may（might） as well习惯用法
Rather than beg in the street， he would prefer to die of hunger.他宁愿饿死也不上街。
I could't help but wait for the next bus to come.我不得不等下一趟车。
***③do nothing/anything/everything but （except）
Last night I did nothing but watch TV. John will do anything but work on a farm.
There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent. The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.
体式 主动语态 被动语态
一般式 to write to be written
完成式 to have written to have been written
进行式 to be writing
完成进行式 to have been writing
⑴体式 ①I am sorry to hear the news.（不定式动作发生在谓语动作之后，或同时发生）
②They seem to be having a meeting. （不定式动作与谓语动作同时发生）
③The enemy was reported to have surrendered two days before.（不定式先于谓语动作）
⑵语态 ①出现动作的执行者，用主动式：I have a meeting to attend.
否则用被动语态：Here are the clothes to be washed.
They found Professor Jones' lecture hard to understand. She is nice to talk to.
③习惯用法：None of us was to blame for that.
The dog was nowhere to be found.
比较： 剥削阶级the exploiting class 被剥削阶级the exploited class
正在采花的女孩the girl gathering flowers 今天早晨采集的花the flowers gathered this morning
落叶fallen leaves 凋谢的花faded flowers 开水boiled water 新到的商品newly arrived goods
His argument is very convincing. 他的论点很令人信服。 They were very excited at the news.
Don't disturb the sleeping child. The arrested murderer will be tried soon.那个被逮捕的杀人犯将受到审讯。
You may ask the lady （who is） sitting at the desk.
Those （who have been） elected as committee members will attend the meeting. （当选为委员的人）
He likes to sit on the beach and watch the sea gulls flying. （海鸥） The work left everyone exhausted.
Hearing the knock on the door， they stopped talking. （= When they heard…。）
Asked to work overtime that evening， I missed a wonderful film. （= As I was asked to…。）
They stood there waiting for the bus. （and were waiting…。）
The bandits fled into the mountains， pursued by the policemen. （and were pursued…。）
The rain having stopped， the soldiers continued their march.
The boys returned， their face covered with sweat.
演变： The teacher entered the classroom， a bag （being） in his hand.
He stopped and turned about， his eyes （being） brightly proud. Breakfast over， he went to his office.
She left the room with the candle burning on the table. He wandered in without shoes or socks on.
Generally speaking， I prefer rice to noodles. Judging from his accent， he must be a southerner.
Having been there many times， he offered to be our guide.
Not having made adequate preparations， we postponed the sports meet.
Having studied hard during the term， he passed the exam.
He is said to have studied hard and passed the exam. Who is the patient being operated on？
1）作主语和表语 Seeing is believing. My hobby is collecting stamps.
（1） 形式主语it It is no use/good quarreling with her. Is it worthwhile trying again？
（2） There is no +V-ing There is no joking about this matter.
He enjoys listening to classical music. We must avoid making such mistakes again.